This branch of medicine is the science concerning the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the lungs. Pulmonary medicine doctors deal with disease conditions including adult respiratory distress syndrome, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, lung cancer, lung transplants, occupational lung disease, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary tuberculosis, sarcoidosis of the lungs, tumors of the lungs, severe acute respiratory syndrome.

Respiratory disease range from mild and self-limiting such as a common cold to life threatening such as a bacterial pneumonia or pulmonary embolism. Respiratory doctors specialize in the treatment of lung diseases, difficulty breathing, persistent coughing, chest pain, wheezing and diagnosing lung cancer.